Weights

  • An Avoidable Tragedy in Cozumel

    Mexico’s Caribbean island of Cozumel provides some startlingly good diving, which is often experienced by American divers since it is so conveniently close to the US. Diving tends to be organised in groups. It is not unusual for individual divers to turn up for dives.There are strong currents. This can lead to problems if one of the divers needs to return to the surface during a dive and that is what happened to a lady recently, with fatal consequences.

    The dive had not started well. It is reported that she had trouble with the inflator mechanism of her BC. Presumably, it tended to jam open or her own BC was not compatible with the regulator and direct-feed she had rented. So she disconnected it, intending to only connect the direct feed when she needed to put some air into her BC. This may be something that a well-practised regular diver can cope with but if anything else went wrong, it could lead to an incident pit.

    And something did go wrong. During the dive, she decided to abort and the dive guide went with her to the depth of a safety stop at, say, 5m deep. He had to be quick because on the current: He could easily lose contact with the rest of the group he was escorting. So he left her there, assuming she was competent enough to make it the short distance to the surface. He successfully rejoined his charges ar depth and continued the dive.

    We don't know what happened next. Her computer would not have recorded whether she actually made the surface or not, but her lifeless body was discovered by an entirely different group of divers some time later. It may well be that on achieving the surface, she forgot how to inflate her BC orally. She probably struggled to reconnect the direct-feed hose whilst finning furiously to stay at the surface. She might never ever have done that. She might have been carrying too much lead. She certainly did not drop her weights. Consequently, she eventually dropped and drowned. Drowning is never like it is portrayed in the movies. Struggling to keep afloat, she would have become exhausted and quietly slipped away. Nobody would have seen her go.

    What can we learn from this tragic series of events, a series of events that happens only too often with leisure divers? Firstly, never go diving unless your equipment is working one hundred percent efficiently. Secondly, be neutrally buoyant at all times. This means never wearing more lead than you need. If you think you need a lot of lead to go under, you are probably holding a large lungful of air. A properly weighted diver needs only to exhale fully to leave the surface.

    If you are neutrally buoyant, you will have no trouble swimming up to the surface, but wearing your tank and weights, you might need supplementary buoyancy to be able to stay afloat, breathing the atmosphere comfortably. This is when you need to inflate your BC and use it as a life preserver.  Know how to inflate your BC orally. That is why it has a corrugated hose. You do not need to use that hose to dump air (through the oral inflation valve) as many instructors still appear to teach. You have a dump valve positioned at the shoulder for that.

    If for some reason you cannot inflate your BC, you can still achieve flotation by dropping the lead weights you carry. I know that many worry about replacing integrated-weight pockets or a weightbelt after it has been dropped in this way, but it’s a small price to pay for your life, isn’t it?

    Think about it. Familiarize yourself with these actions. There is no reason to die in such foolish circumstances. And don’t expect anyone else to save you from your own folly. Don’t abdicate responsibility for your own well-being or even your life to a third person, someone you probably only met a short time before you went diving. Know how to work all your gear. Check that you know how to drop your weights and practise inflating your BC orally. Practice helps muscle memory so that it becomes second nature.

  • Five Ideas to Improve Your Diving.

    Get Your Trim Right . Often, divers carry the right amount of weight but in the wrong place. A drysuit diver needs to carry the best part of his weight in such a manner that his chest will come up slightly and his feet go down. Consider where the fulcrum or pivoting point of your body will be. Integrated weight pockets on a BC might be too high up on a long-legged diver.  A weight harness allows weights to be slung lower. On the other hand, a diver wearing a lightweight suit and using an aluminium tank might need to add some weight higher up and, if the BC in use has no trim-weight pockets, you can always add a couple of kilos to the camband that goes round the tank. You need to be comfortably horizontal in the water without any tendency to invert.Trim Deploy a Delayed Surface-Marker Buoy Easily in Mid-water. Why do so many divers make a mess of this? Is it because they haven’t been shown how to do it? Carrying a big camera? Learn how to do it easily with one free hand. Stream the buoy so that it floats above you. A tiny bit of exhaled air in it will help keep it up. Pull off as many metres of line that is practical, so that your reel hangs below you. Take the open end of the buoy and hold it with fingers and thumb above the upper side of the exhaust-T of your regulator while holding your head a little to one side. Have the line passing through but not gripped by your hand. Exhale into the buoy. It will start to ascend. Exhale again immediately releasing your grip on the buoy and grab the reel as it gets pulled up to your hand. Release the line from the ratchet of the reel. Watch the buoy go. Tighten off the ratchet as soon as the line loses its tension because the buoy will have reached the surface. Get Your Weight Right. The human body is more or less neutrally buoyant. Take a big breath and your float. Empty your lungs and your heavy head will go under. If we didn’t wear buoyant kit such as our suits, we wouldn’t need to wear weights. If you want to get your weight right, exhale hard at the surface and the weight of your head in the air should push you down. Add an extra amount of lead to compensate for the weight of the gas you might exhale out into the water during the dive and you’re perfectly weighted. So why do so many divers wear too much weight? Is it because they are used to plummeting to the seabed and trampling around before putting air into their BC of suit to make it back to the surface? Neutral buoyancy is the very essence of pleasurable diving. If you are neutrally buoyant near the surface in your drysuit, you will only need to add sufficient air during the dive to make up for the compression of the air that was in it when you started. If you need to put air in your BC too, there’s a good chance you’ve overdone it with the amount of lead you are carrying. Use Your Lung Volume. Don’t keep fiddling with your BC direct-feed inflation. If you are using conventional open-circuit scuba, varying your lung volume can be a useful adjustment when heading over or under obstacles. A big deep breath will stop you from crashing down lower than you intended and using the range at the other end of the lung-volumes you have available will enable you to cruise over things without inadvertently heading for the surface. You’ll soon find that you can do this almost unconsciously and it’s a great way enjoy a relaxed dive. You’ll also find it helps to keep station at a blue water safety stop. Wear a Suit That Fits. When someone asked me which was my favourite diving suit, I replied it was the one that fitted me best. If your drysuit fits your perfectly, there will be less of a drag when you are swimming. If your wetsuit or semi-dry is too big, cold water will flush around it under the arms and around the groin so that you’ll soon feel cold. If your drysuit is too small you either won’t be able to sit down in it or you’ll be limited to the choice of the undergarment you can wear with it. If your wetsuit or semi-dry is too small, it might interfere with your ability to breathe. Try a suit on before you buy it. That's what the changing rooms at Ocean Leisure are for! We're there to help you.

  • Be Ready To Drop It!

    Contrary to expectations of a sport that was years ago considered dangerous, there are few fatalities through scuba diving, but I was present in the Bahamas when a diver tragically lost his life during a dive. What happened? He went off on his own, ran out of air and at only around 18m deep he struck out for the surface. As designed, the Suunto computer he was wearing did not record the time he spent between 2m and the surface but it recorded everything else in its log and told the story. He probably made it to the surface but he dropped back down and drowned. He was a recently certified diver who had made a previous dive-specific trip so he was not totally inexperienced but why did he drop? When we recovered his body all his equipment was still in place. That is to say he was still wearing his weightbelt. Running out of air to breathe is obviously very serious. Every diver should manage their air supplies properly by keeping an eye on their pressure gauge. I admit that there may have been times when, distracted by an underwater photography subject, I have cut it very fine and arrived at the surface without enough pressure in my tank to inflate my BC. It’s not something I recommend but I’ve been able to orally inflate it instead. That’s what the oral inflation valve at the end of the corrugated hose is for. If this unfortunate person had reached the surface he could have done that but I am inclined to think that by this point he’d got into a panic and might have lost all sense of reason. He might have tried to use the BC’s direct-feed control but of course it would not have worked if his tank were empty.

    Make sure you get your weightbelt clear of your body before you drop it. Make sure you get your weightbelt clear of your body before you drop it.
    There is another option. Think about dropping your weightbelt in an emergency. Struggling to swim with full kit at the surface, if that diver had thought to drop his weightbelt he would still be alive today.You should not have to do this in order to swim up to the surface if you are correctly weighted to be neutrally buoyant, but you might need to do it once you are there. Dropping your weightbelt has the effect of making you buoyant so you don’t really want to do it at depth and enjoy an out-of-control ascent. You must also be careful not to drop it on divers that may be below you and for this reason practicing this act is discouraged at crowded inland dive sites. Before BCs, and their forerunner the ABLJ, were invented, dropping the weightbelt was enshrined in diver training. It was the only way to stay at the surface during an emergency. Correct use of a BC allows for neutral buoyancy at any depth and one only has to swim up a little for the gas within the BC to expand and start to become positively buoyant. You then need to jettison some air for reasons of controlling the speed of ascent. Dropping the weights effects a sudden increase in buoyancy that could get out of control. For this reason dropping weights tends to be glossed over in training. So how to drop a weightbelt? It used to be the last thing you put on in the old days. That was so that it was never fouled by other straps passing over it. Today, it’s often put on before the BC and tank.

    It is not sufficient to simply flip the buckle and let it fall. You need to be sure it falls away cleaning from you without snagging. Think about dropping you weightbelt and its ramifications. Avoid being over-weighted so that you can be neutrally buoyant at any depth but know that you can always drop your weightbelt once you are near to the surface. Unhitch it and swing it away from you and once it is clear, before you drop it!

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